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Species Name Name Description Protein homology Other info Source
Fragaria cascadensis Like the 8x Fragaria studied to date, male sterility in the 10x F. cascadensis is dominant and maps to the same homeologous group (chromosome VI). However, it differs in subgenome and chromosomal position. Male sterility was mapped to a ~ 1?Mb region between 36.529 and 37.547 Mb on Fcas?VI?m?4 of the B1 subgenome in chromosome VI. Female sterility could not be scored as a qualitative trait. In F. virginiana ssp. platypetala, male function is located on the same homeolog as in F. cascadensis but closer to the middle (13 Mb). In 8x F. chiloensis, male function is located at a similar distal end of a chromosome (37 Mb), but on a different subgenome (Av). In F. cascadensis (10x), male sterility is dominant and maps to the same homologous group (chrom. VI) as in octoploid Fragarias. However, there are differences in the chromosomal and subgenome position.
Fragaria chiloensis Dominance of male sterility over fertility and recessivity of female sterilty over fertility.
Fragaria chiloensis Sex is determined by a dominant sterility allele (A) at the male function locus and a recessive sterility allele (g) at the female function locus, localized on linkage group (LG) in the chromosome VI.A. In F. virginiana these sex-determining loci are localated on LG VI.C.
Fragaria chiloensis This species has the hallmarks of a complete, albeit incipient, ZW sex chromosome system. If so, it is possibly the youngest ZW system known in plants up to date.
Fragaria chiloensis The SDR of this ZW system has been located within a 280 kb window, in which the maternal recombination rate is lower than the paternal one. In contrast to the SDR, the maternal PAR recombination rate is much higher than the rates of the paternal PAR or autosomes, culminating in an elevated chromosome?wide rate. W?specific divergence is elevated within the SDR and a single polymorphism is observed in high species?wide linkage disequilibrium with sex.
Fragaria chiloensis The sex determination region is highly consistent within F. chiloensis, the same SDR was indentified in this species in three crosses from populations up to 1,000 km away. The SDR is at 37 Mb on chromosome VI of the Av subgenome.
Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata Male sterility locus is dominant, as seen in other Fragaria species, but its chromosomal location is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions of octoploid Fragaria
Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata At least two unlinked loci were found to harbor male sterility alleles. One of these loci on chromosome IV (out of seven homeologous chromosome groups), is heterozygous in females.
Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata The gynodioecy is controlled by three loci. The dominant male sterility locus (epistatically dominant to fertility restorer(s)) is located on LG4 and one of the restorers of fertility is on the LG6. The location of the third locus (putative fertility restorer) remained unclear.
Fragaria virginiana The quantitative variation in amount of fruit set is controlled by a single region linked to the malefunction locus on LG VI-C, confirming the presence of a protosex chromosome in F. virginiana. There is a strong correlation between the degree of sex determination and the percent variation explained by the QTL linked to the proto-sex chromosome, consistent with predictions from sex-linkage as a primary cause of sex determination.

Sex-chrom database 2021